The Spanish Influenza of 1918

If I were to tell you that the single most deadly event in recorded human history took place in the 1900’s, what would you think it was? Probably one of the Great Wars – which would be close, but not quite right. The event took place from 1918 to 1919, but the killer was no human; the weapon neither bullets or gas. It was an enemy so small it cannot be seen by the naked eye: the 1918 Spanish Influenza virus, also known as “La Grippe.” During its year-long reign, this tiny virus killed between 50 and 100 million people across the globe. It killed more people in a single year than the Black Death did in the entire 14th century, more than either World War, and well over 6 times the population of New York City. Some even say that more Americans were buried in France having died of influenza than had been killed fighting on the battlefield. We get outbreaks of the flu every year without batting an eyelash, so what went so terribly wrong in 1918?

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Vaccines: Disease, Eradication, Misinformation, and Reemergence

No one really likes vaccinations. Children view the procedure with the trepidation of a victim being pursued by a madman with a butcher’s knife, while parents make soothing, inane comments to their terrified offspring, such as “the sharp, pointy weapon is nothing to be afraid of!” as they are forced to pry their children from underneath the doctor’s table (my sister was particularly prone to this type of needle-avoidance). Personally, I view my own shots with a perverse fascination, but that probably comes from being, as my parents say, ‘an unusual child.’ In general, vaccinations are viewed by both parents and patients with resigned acceptance, although in the past decade there has been an upsurge of media attention toward possible side effects. Some individuals have become leery of the procedure, choosing to keep their children unvaccinated. Just how much of these concerns are based on truth, and how much stems from misinformation?

It is important to understand the science behind vaccinations, and the process of development, before jumping to conclusions. Vaccines have provided relief from decimating diseases, even eradicating mass killers such as smallpox. They are an unparalleled scientific miracle, which utilizes the wonders of our own immune system to provide protection from deadly diseases.

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Leprosy: The Social Disease

Leprosy is known as the Death before Death; a disease of unparalleled historical stigma and fear that has earned the appellation kushtha, ‘eating away.’ Today, whilst its effects are none the less awful, it is known under the more innocuous title of Hansen’s Disease. In 1948, Dr. Earnest Muir wrote that leprosy was the most dreaded disease—ironically, not because it kills, but rather, because it leaves its victims alive. Leprosy and humans have a long, bitter relationship. Though it has plagued us since at least 2000 BC, we barely understand it four thousand years later and we are still wrestling with its legacy of stigmatization.

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Source: Wikimedia

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Yersinia pestis: The Plague

When someone mentions the plague, the Black Death often leaps to mind: an infamous, decimating disease that we tend to associate with the medieval period. However, since the beginning of recorded history the plague has sinisterly spread across the globe and wiped out up to 30-40% of the world’s population three times, as well as hundreds of smaller outbreaks. The most recent pandemic (a worldwide outbreak of disease) was less than two hundred years ago, and is arguably still going on. Several thousand cases of plague occur worldwide each year, and the plague has now been classified as a reemerging disease. While we may view the plague as an ancient disease, when we consider the facts that we lack a vaccination, there are antibiotic resistant strains, and the pathogen has been utilized for biological warfare, it is very much a modern issue.

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Source: nocturnalmoth (click for gallery)

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Tetanospasmin and Tetanus: The Second Deadliest Toxin

Remember my past post on botulinum toxin, the deadliest substance known to mankind? Well, it’s time to visit the second runner up. Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin created by another member of the Clostridium genus: Clostridium tetani. That is one genus you don’t want to mess with! This particular member of Clostridium is the cause behind all those lovely tetanus shots and boosters you have been subjected to through the years. When you consider the fact that you’re being vaccinated against the second deadliest toxin in the world, maybe you won’t mind the needle jab quite as much. In a rather bizarre twist, the neurotoxin has no apparent use or benefit to C. tetani in its natural environment. The intoxication of other organisms, such as us, appears to be mainly incidental.

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Photographs adapted from cedarcrest.edu

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Diabetes Mellitus

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Source: technorati.com

Diabetes is a term that gets thrown around a lot these days. Whether you’re indulging in a sugary feast and a friend wryly comments on your risk of acquiring it, or you come across it in a headline, diabetes is one of the more prominent diseases of modern society. Over 20 million Americans suffer from diabetes and over 40 million have pre-diabetes [1]. Most people know the rudimentary basis of the disease–a metabolic disorder of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)–yet the actual pathogenesis and widespread symptoms are less well known and can be frustratingly obscure to research.

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Botulinum Neurotoxin: From Weapon to Cosmetic

Botulinum neurotoxin is the deadliest substance on Earth; a single gram would kill over a million people if inhaled and 8.3 million if injected. So, naturally, humans have developed a specific method to inject it into our faces. Believe it or not, this neurotoxin is the primary component of Botox!

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